讽刺的主要类型有哪些? (需要知道的三种类型)


讽刺是讲故事最重要的部分之一. 你会发现讽刺是AG体育手机版大部分喜剧的核心, 但这也是AG体育手机版故事中戏剧张力的一个重要部分. Understanding the types of irony available can be a great tool in your storytelling.

如果你知道它是什么以及如何使用它, 你会有很多新的成长机会 写你的小说

关于反语的含义有很多误解, so much so that the word’s common use has started to mean something closer to ‘sarcastic’ or ‘unexpected’ than its original 意义. And that’s okay–words change over time, and people adapt to new 意义s as language develops. 

However, if you want to use irony as a tool in your work, it’s important to be clear what it is. 在这篇文章中, AG体育手机版将带你领略讽刺的主要类型, 给出它们的定义, 然后给大家举几个例子. 

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具有讽刺意味的是什么? 

讽刺是指意外发生的事. 通常, 与AG体育手机版预期相反的事情发生了, 这要么很有趣,要么很戏剧化. 

So, in a simple example: if you told your friend your pet died and they responded with “that’s awesome!,这是一个讽刺的例子. AG体育手机版希望朋友是关心和有同情心的, 如果他们对你的损失无动于衷或感到高兴, 这和AG体育手机版预期的正好相反. 

这可能会产生一些不同的结果. Maybe they’ve said “oh, that’s awesome” in a joking 语气, and it made you laugh. 也许他们会说“太棒了!” in a flippant way, and it’s created some tension between you and your friend. 

明白我的意思了吧? When something is ironic, it’s different than the thing we expected to a dramatic or comedic effect. 

现在,有时候,人们认为“讽刺”只是指出乎意料. And that isn’t necessarily true–irony is only really satisfying when it plays off 观众的期望. 在AG体育手机版使用的例子中, AG体育手机版可以让朋友随机回答一些问题, 但它可能不会有趣或戏剧性. 它只是随机的. 

现在AG体育手机版已经基本了解了 具有讽刺意味的是什么,让AG体育手机版来看看三种主要的讽刺类型. 

三种类型的讽刺

在一般情况下, there are 3 types of irony–these types all have a ton of subtypes with their own tropes, 预期, 和例子, 但是为了让事情变得更流畅, AG体育手机版只会涉及到这三个方面. 

1. 戏剧性的讽刺 

戏剧性的讽刺是观众拥有角色所不拥有的信息. 在玩, maybe a scene concerning the protagonist took place without the protagonist actually being here. 因此, the audience has information on the other character’s intentions without that character themselves being aware of them. 

这是惊悚和恐怖故事中真正令人紧张的部分. 因为AG体育手机版知道危险在等待着这个角色, we’re on the edge of our seats hoping the character figures things out in time to avoid peril. 

同样,这也会造成一些有趣的情况! 如果AG体育手机版拥有角色所没有的信息, it can be funny to watch them make a fool of themselves figuring it out or blundering in their misunderstanding. 

2. 情境反讽 

Situational irony means that the outcome of an action was the opposite of what we expected. A story is headed in one direction, but then the outcome twists in the opposite way. 

这一点对人们来说很难掌握, but the main thing to keep in mind is that the situation went differently than you’d expect. We’ll give some examples in a minute to really hammer home how this plays out and what it looks like in comedy and drama. 

3. 言语反讽 

言语反讽也许是日常生活中最常使用的! 在日常行话中,AG体育手机版通常把它称为“讽刺”. Verbal irony is when we say something, but it means the opposite thing, or something different. 

This type of irony can be tricky to grasp for some people, since it relies on decoding people’s 语气. The way a person says things is often the way we can discern whether they meant what they said, 或者他们的意思是讽刺. 

如果你告诉我你今天过得糟透了,而我告诉你, 甜蜜的,如果你不注意我的语气,你可能会生气. 如果一个沮丧的孩子告诉你家庭作业“超级有趣”, 像往常一样,如果你没有听到他的语气,你可能很难看出他是在讽刺, 看他翻白眼的样子, 或者看着他跺着脚回房间. 

因为这个,当你 写一本小说, it’s important not to forget those nonverbal cues when you’re using verbal irony. Give us enough to let us know the character means the opposite, and we’re good to go! 

三种类型的讽刺的例子 

现在AG体育手机版已经讲了三种类型的讽刺, 让AG体育手机版来看一些具体的例子. 

1. 戏剧性的讽刺 

罗密欧与朱丽叶 

罗密欧与朱丽叶 (and much of Shakespeare’s work) is full of all different 种类s of irony, 但AG体育手机版要关注著名的最后一幕. 

在这出戏的结尾, these two star-crossed lovers are on the escape to live happily ever after from their disapproving families. Juliet takes a potion that’s meant to mimic death–the audience knows she’ll wake up, 但是罗密欧进来了, 谁不知道. 

罗密欧以为朱丽叶死了,因为他不知道观众在做什么. 结果,他自杀了,不愿意生活在一个没有朱丽叶的世界. 紧张的气氛来自于罗密欧失踪的消息, 但AG体育手机版,AG体育手机版在叫他不要这么做, 因为当朱丽叶醒来的时候, 她是伤心的, 还自杀了. 

怪物史莱克 

怪物史莱克 在运用反讽达到喜剧效果方面是绝对的大师级作品吗, 但它也用讽刺来营造戏剧性的紧张气氛. 

在电影中有一段, 观众知道菲奥娜, 他救了公主, 真的是食人魔吗. 史莱克并不知道这些. When Fiona is being distant and saying things like ‘who could ever love a beast,紧张的原因在于AG体育手机版知道她的意思, 史莱克不. 

Another example of dramatic irony in 怪物史莱克 happens when Fiona tells Donkey to go get a plant that has blue flowers and red thorns. Fiona quickly tells 怪物史莱克 (and the audience) that this was just to get rid of him, so it’s funny to watch Donkey freak out trying to pick out a blue flower with red thorns. 这个任务毫无意义,所以他的关心很有趣. 

2. 情境反讽 

史莱克2

是的,又是史莱克! 所有的《AG体育官网APP下载》电影,再一次充满了讽刺的喜剧效果. In 史莱克2, we have a fairy godmother who appears to help Fiona with all of her romance issues. The irony is that the fairy godmother actually acts as a villain and tears Fiona apart from 怪物史莱克 (spoiler)–we expect a fairy godmother to be 甜蜜的, 种类, 和有用的, 在电影中, 她什么,但. 

电影中白马王子的使用也非常相似. AG体育手机版对谁是白马王子有一种文化理解——他很可爱, 他很帅, 他是完美的男人. 但是在《AG体育手机版》中,白马王子很漂亮,但他很可怕. 他是个恶棍,这是讽刺的转折. 

俄狄浦斯雷克斯 

在俄狄浦斯雷克斯, Oedipus is told at the beginning of the play that he is fated to marry his mother and murder his father. 他是, 这是可以理解的, 超级恶心, 整部戏都在试图避免这种命运. 最后,他确实杀了他的父亲,娶了他的母亲. 令人作呕的人! 但同时,讽刺. 

迈达斯王的神话 

迈达斯王是情境反讽的另一个经典例子. 迈达斯国王很贪婪,想要财富和权力, 所以当他得到一份能让他摸到的东西都变成金子的礼物时, AG体育手机版希望这是非常棒的, right? Well, not really–it’s all fun and games until you turn your loved ones into gold statues. 

AG体育手机版希望迈达斯国王能拥有超乎想象的财富和幸福. 相反,他既富有又悲惨——这是情景的讽刺. 

3. 言语反讽 

怪物史莱克

最后史莱克的例子, 我发誓, 不过说实在的, 如果你想了解更多关于讽刺的知识,这些电影很棒! 

在第一部电影中, 怪物史莱克 goes to the castle to tell Lord Farquaad to get the fairytale creatures off his land. 当他走, he’s told he has to compete in a tournament to have the chance to have his request heard. 比赛是危险的, 在比赛开始前,法魁德给大家打气, 说“你们中的一些人可能会死。, 但我愿意做出这样的牺牲.” 

这是讽刺. 首先,他试图让自己看起来高尚无私,但显然他并不是. His words technically imply that he’s virtuous, but we understand it differently. 

一个温和的建议 

在乔纳森•斯威夫特的 一个温和的建议, 斯威夫特为爱尔兰面临的饥饿问题提供了一个解决方案. 他从完全理性开始, 爱尔兰实际情况的信息, but then he takes a detour and says that we should eat Irish babies to solve the starvation crisis. 

这有什么讽刺的? Swift is obviously not actually saying that we should, definitely, seriously, eat babies. He’s instead pointing out how absurd it is that a solution hasn’t already been found, 并对爱尔兰人民在英国统治下受到的待遇发表评论. 

此外,建议AG体育手机版吃婴儿的提议绝不是谦虚的! 

《AG体育手机版》 

在简奥斯丁的 《AG体育手机版》, 她以这句名言开场:“这是一个举世公认的真理, 一个拥有财富的单身男人, 一定是想找个老婆吧.“基本上, she’s saying that everyone knows that men are super invested in having wives and are very concerned with finding one. 

这很讽刺,因为整本书都是如此, AG体育手机版看到相反的女人非常关心找一个丈夫, since society has put them in a position where they depend on their husbands and fathers for survival. 

Do you have any other examples of irony from your favorite books, TV 显示s, or movies? 请在评论中告诉AG体育手机版! 

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